The PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways is crucial to many aspects of cell growth and survival, in physiological as well as in pathological conditions. Phosphoinositide 3-kinasesare is a family of related intracellular signal transducer enzymes capable of phosphorylating the 3 position hydroxyl group of the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns). Akt, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that plays a key role in multiple cellular processes such as glucose metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation, transcription and cell migration. mTOR is a serine/threonine protein kinase that regulates cell growth, cell proliferation, cell motility, cell survival, protein synthesis, and transcription. mTOR belongs to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase protein family.
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